REPORT OF TRUSTEES OF THE BEVERLY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND EXECUTIVE OFFICER
To the Trustees of the Beverly Independent. Industrial School:
I have the honor to present herewith the sixth annual report of the Beverly Independent Industrial School.
This school is now well established as a valuable type of institution for furthering industrial education. Indeed, it may well lay claim to being the best type of school for such a purpose, from whatever point of view the situation is studied.
Any worthy boy fifteen years of age has access to the opportunities offered in this school (up to the limit of its capacity) whenever he desires them and will, therefore, appreciate them. He is not required, as in the case of some industrial schools, to complete a prescribed course in some other school before being admitted. He is not indentured as an apprentice to any employer who may be tempted to exploit his labor to the financial gain of the corporation. He does real work under real shop conditions where modern, efficient methods will be found at all times-a condition that cannot be supplied in a school building. Though working in a real shop, he is instructed by trained workmen who devote their entire time to the boys — a distinct advantage over spasmodic assistance from foreman or fellow-workmen. He earns real money in the factory in proportion to his ability and his energy — an invaluable opportunity for him to measure himself up with his fellows and with the standards of his trade. At the school he studies those problems in science, mathematics, mechanical drawing, etc., that bear directly upon his work in the shop — thus gaining an insight into the “why” of things done there as well as the “how” of their solution. He is given an opportunity regarding the eighty-one withdrawals, forty-five and two tenths per cent. of the total enrolment. This high “mortality” seems necessary to the starting of a new enterprise. It is significant that fifty- eight per cent. of all withdrawals were from those who had enrolled during the first year. No better proof of the irregular quality of the early membership can be given. In the first eight weeks one- third of the membership was changed.
It is interesting to note that the average age of the withdrawals was sixteen years, seven months. The median of attendance was twenty-two weeks. There is. a suggestion here that may crystallize into a rule that a trial period of, say, four months should elapse before boys are received into full membership. It must be remembered that this would give only two months in the factory. As bearing upon this point it may be noted that for the past two years the average period of attendance before withdrawals has been steadily decreasing. In the case of withdrawals by expulsion the term of membership has been about fifteen weeks.
Now that the school is on an established basis and the experimental stage passed, it would seem that withdrawals should average about fifteen per cent., one-third of these being expelled for misconduct.
REASONS FOR WITHDRAWAL
It is remarkable that few boys left because of dissatisfaction with the school; this group is less than fifteen per cent. III health was the cause of withdrawal of nine boys or eleven and one tenth per cent, five per cent of the total enrolment. Factory conditions were not responsible for ill health, as the sanitary conditions of employees in the factory of the United Shoe Machinery Company are model. When one considers the conditions under which the large majority of boys have to work in other establishments, I feel that our boys are highly favored. Not- withstanding, this, I hope we shall be able to do more definite work in up building the boys physically. A growing boy at work needs corrective exercises, especially for lung development and body carriage.
OCCUPATION OF WITHDRAWALS
The outstanding fact is this: forty-three and three-tenths per cent. of all withdrawals are now at work in mechanical trades. This may indicate a natural bent on the part of the boys, but we may hope that the training given here helped prepare the boy for his work. The machinist’s trade, for which our boys are trained, finds work for eighteen and eight-tenths per cent. Equally – gratifying is the fact that eight and six-tenths per cent. of the withdrawals are now in the regular or in technical schools. We may be sure that their school life has assumed more seriousness of purpose after their “try out” here.
Nearly one-fourth Rave no regular occupation, and it is to this class that two-thirds of those discharged for misconduct or, slack workmanship belong. The weeding out process in the school was evidently along wise lines.
The study of these results will finish much cause for thought and congratulation on the work of the school as maker and conserver of good citizenship.
MEMBERSHIP IN FIVE YEARS
One hundred seventy-nine different boys have been on our list since the opening on August 2, 1909. For the first three years the membership was limited to fifty boys, but has been increased to its present number sixty.
The number of different boys enrolled for the separate years is: First year, 73; second year, 62; third year, 64; fourth year, 77; fifth year, 78. The age of these boys has ranged from fourteen to twenty-one years. The school grades previously attended began with the sixth grade and included the third year of High School. During the first two years the attendance was irregular and reached a low average. On entering your service as Director of the school, I made special effort to bring the attendance up to a good average; this has now become a regular feature of the school, as is shown by the percent of attendance for 1911-12, being 97; for 1912-13, 96.8; for 1913-14, 97.5. There is no difference in the rate of absence between shop-week and school-week, although it is often asserted that boys would prefer the shop week with its earnings to the school week with its studies. I have emphasized the principle that it is all school and one week is as important as the other. To stress this, it is a rule that absence from school counts as much as absence from the factory, although the number of hours per day differs.
Many inquiries reach this office as to the extent of the training given, whether our boys are being developed as all-round’ machinists or simply as experts on one or two machines. Are we training the hands, planer hands, drill hands, etc, or boys who shall be competent to fill any of these places? For several years I have kept exact record of the progress of each boy on the: machine tools and operations so that we can speak intelligently on this point. I have reduced this to a percentage basis.
It will be of interest to compare our distribution of time with that suggested by representatives of nine schools offering machinist. training courses which were represented at the State Vocational Conference at Hyannis in July, 1913. This table has not been published heretofore, and will show that our practice is ‘excellent.,
DISTRIBUTION OF SHOP HOURS, 1913-1914
The necessary time for training on each machine tool has not. been slighted, although an increased amount of time has been given to some machines. I am preparing tables which will show the nature of the operations performed on each machine and the time given to each of these operations. Even this will not show the skilled exactness required in our work. Criticism has been made that the pieces on which our boys work are small; we have no intention of measuring skill or workmanship by the ton weight of the pieces: worked on. There is little doubt that the workman who has become expert in doing the kind of work demanded of our boys will have little difficulty in adapting himself to more massive ieces where less exactness is insisted on. In fact, he will have less trouble than the workman who has been used to the large work and is compelled to adapt himself to the fine work we do.
Expert workmen will differ as to the distribution of time. Their opinion, in many cases, is based by their present specialized occupation or by their early training. Our distribution of hours must be interpreted in the light of the fact that this distribution is developing all-round workmen. Improvements will come, and these facts will assist in developing an ideal course. Data are given for each Division of the school to show the uniformity of practice, although undesigned.
Since its opening, August 2, 1909, the school has been in continuous session, excepting on regular legal holidays and a two-weeks’ recess each July. It has been a serious question whether a school boy could do efficient work in an all-the-year- round school. Our experience has shown that the long session works no physical nor mental detriment to the average normal boy.
RATE OF EARNINGS FOR FIVE YEARS
Under another caption is the statement of total earnings for the period. The most important figure as showing the boys’ growth and value as a workman is his hourly rate. Owing to conditions attending piece work, it is not always safe to assume that a high rate of pay means a high order of workmanship or vice-versa. A job may be very rich in instruction and practical lessons, but poor in pay. . The hourly rate, however, may be taken as a fair index of workmanship. In the figures given below, every boy. good or bad, is taken into account. The rate given is the actual rate earned, not the rate of the earnings received by the boy. which is only one-half his total earnings.
On this basis we have:
The decrease in rate for the past year is readily accounted for by the poor condition of business at the factory, a condition common to the entire business world. It is very probable that the rate for 1914-15 will be lower and for the same reason. When normal conditions return, a normal rating will result.
It is interesting to note that the rate, twenty-three cents per hour, at which our boys begin full-time work is a natural advance step over the part-time rate and not a sign of “favoritism” by the Company.
The factory week is fifty hours, although during the past year business depression caused the factory to run for fourteen weeks on a forty-one hour week.
CHANGES IN COURSE OF TRAINING
In the early years of the school, topics of study were taught with little definite aim, although much removed from the traditional subjects taught in the grade schools. Experience has developed a’ clearer understanding of the content of our teaching. Formerly, the fact that a subject had a technical bearing or could be connected with the experience of a machinist was sufficient to find a place in the school program. Now our tendency is to group subjects into divisions (1) necessary to every practical machinist, (2) desirable, (3) related to the trade, but not so closely as in (1) and (2). In the four main divisions of work during the school- room week-mechanical drawing, mathematics, science, machine and operation study-the material is now in shape for the above grouping and the coming year will find the grouping made exact.
In mechanical drawing we have two systems practiced. In both of them there is a severance from the traditional geometric,’ picture-drawing method.
In Division “A” Mr. Thalmann has developed the drawing of shop operations into a system: The nucleus of the system is this: the boy with a finished machined piece in hand is taught to think out the processes which have brought the piece from the rough casting to its present state. His knowledge of machine shop operations is drawn upon and he is compelled to visualize the piece both before and after each operation. From the finished piece he must draw what he conceives to be the original casting or forging. In separate working drawings he next shows the results of successive operations. This method gives close correlation between his shop processes and drawings, yet lays most emphasis on machine shop operations. Working drawings are also made to accompany work done in the study of shop practice. Sheets of screw-threads, bolts, nuts, etc., are also made for reference.
In Division “B” Mr. Hamilton’s system carries the principles of mechanical drawing through a series of working .drawings of parts of a complete machine. The machine is disassembled and each piece measured preliminary to a pencil sketch; the preliminary sketch is used as the basis for a finished drawing.
Principles of drawing, which are not required in work on the above machine, are developed through other drawings of cams, etc. Special emphasis is laid on original drawings of jigs and fixtures designed for use in machining parts for which a series of operations and tools has been worked out by the boy.
The object of both drawing systems is not to train boys for the drafting-room, but to give insight into drawings and facility in interpreting them. Several boys have entered the drafting room after completing part-time training for machinists and have been able to use the drafting knowledge acquired in the classroom shop operations is drawn upon and he is compelled to visualize the piece both before and after each operation. From the finished piece he must draw what he conceives to be the original casting or forging. In separate working drawings he next shows the results of successive operations. This method gives close co relation between his shop processes and drawings, yet lays most emphasis on machine shop operations.
In my last report I made mention of the new course in Machine Shop Science being worked out by Mr. Forbes in consultation with Mr. C. R. Allen, Agent of the State Board of Education. This course was completed, a number of specially designed machines constructed, and a room in the basement of the school fully equipped for the work. The State Board published the -course in pamphlet form and have given it wide circulation as an illustration of the application of science instruction to a particular trade.
Several schools in the state are expecting to model courses on this new course. The outline of the printed course is here appended as it is not elsewhere accessible in print.
FIRST YEAR, SECOND YEAR
Unit I General Properties of Metals.
Unit VI Strength of Materials. Appearance. Elasticity. Weight. Transverse strength. Rigidity. Tension. Malleability. Defection. Resistance to machining. Elongation. Natural hardness. Torsion. Hardness and rigidity when heated and quenched. Hardness and rigidity at different temperatures. Hardness when heated and allowed to cool slowly.
Unit VII Heat Treatment of Steel. Hardening.
Unit II Shaping of Metals. Tempering.
6. Molding Case hardening. Rectangular block. Pack hardening. Bushing with core (parted pattern). Crowned pulley with core (coped out). b. Drop Flogging.
Simple offset lever. Unit VIII Pattern-making and Molding Flash. Shrinkage. Trimming dies. Finish. Draft.
Unit III Effect of Lubrication. Coring, Flat surface. Drop Forging. Roller and ball bearings Die Sinking. (Babbitt, composition. cast Lead Proofs. iron and hardened steel).
Unit IV Screw Threads. Principles of screw cutting. Single and multiple screws.
Unit IX Lubrication. Pitch. Cutting lubricants, etc. Lead.
Unit V Elementary mechanisms. Gearing (friction, spur, bevel. spiral worm, etc.).
Unit X Mechanisms. Link mechanism (circular to re- Link mechanism.
circuiting motion. Variable Elementary applied mechanic-stroke. elliptical motions).
EXTENSION SHOP PRACTICE
Two years ago it seemed clear that the students were not fully acquainted with their machine tools, their parts, operation and care. Feeling that it was unwise to take part of the regular shop-week to remedy this defect, I re-arranged the program so that the shop instructor could take small groups to the factory .during the school week. One of the machine tools was placed in a special room and the group was instructed in the finer points .of operation and construction of the machine. Notes and drawings quiz by the instructor. The milling machine, drill, and lathe, were thus studied. This year the milling machine under power is the subject of study and practice. The results of this type of work have far exceeded our expectations and confirm us in the belief that this new l1lethod will prove a very practical part of the, school-room instruction. The boys are enthusiastic in their interest. During the coming year, I shall arrange that each group will spend at least four hours weekly in this work. The class-room work is being closely correlated to this, and we consider it a great step forward. The co-operation of the factory in providing the machines and extra space is most helpful.
The groupings of the topics under three headings as (1) related mathematics, (2) applied mathematics, (3) trade mathematics, is in process of completion. In the main, (3) deals with the use of tables and rules as found in handbooks, accessible to. machinists, and is “figuring”; (2) would give the reason for the rule by applying mathematical principles and methods to the topics under discussion; (1) would derive these principles. For example, to find the circular pitch when the diametral pitch is known, trade mathematics either would use. the tables in the handbook would divide 3.1416 by the diametral pitch; applied mathematics would work out the formula from the definition of the pitches and known facts as to circles, while relatable mathematics would teach the principles of the simple equation, how to find one quantity in terms of another, how to find the circumference of a circle, etc. The shop instructor will teach trade mathematics and as much applied mathematics as time will allow; the rest will be taken care of by the director. The entire list of topics; covered in the mathematics is here given.
Fractions. Reducing common and decimal to so-called binary or machinist’s fractions. Reciprocals. Common operations.
Ratio and Proportion. Simple treatment as applied to speed ratio, gearing, tapers, circles. Essentials as used in finding. functions in trigonometry.
Square Root. Preparatory to work in threads, gears, lay-out, bolts and nuts.
Geometry. Basic facts and principles pertaining to angles, triangles, circles and hexagons, derived from measurement methods and constructive work. Application of these facts to practical uses. Areas of rectangular figures and circles.
Formulas. Simple treatment and solution for one value in tens of others. Handled by method of the equation. Working out formulas from rules; simplifying and applying to common shop-mathematics.
Trigonometry. Functions as derived from Geometry. Explanation and use of tables of Natural Logarithms. Finding functions of angles and angles corresponding to given functions. Application in solution of right triangles as found in topics following this and in laying out work with or without angle iron: Dove- tails.
Figuring Taper. Methods of expressing amount of taper in -shafts, pulley, etc. Finding off-set for cutting tapers.
Speed of Pulleys and Gears. Figuring. Use of ratios. Back gears.
Speeds and Feeds. Principally to find amount of stocks removed and time of operation.
Gearing Ratios. Compounding.
Indexing. Plain or Direct. Indexing for angles. Differential Indexing. Work ‘with or without tables. Problems ,applied directly on Dividing Head.
Threads. Single, Double, Multiple Pitches. Angles. Lead. :Single and Double Depth. Approximate size of tap drills. Sharp V, U.S.S., Acme, and Square Threads. Clearance of cutting tool for square threads.
Worms. Finding Depth. Linear and Nominal Pitches. Lead, and Tool Clearance. Helix angle.
Spur Gear and Rack. Finding the tooth parts. Choral Pitch and Corrected Addendum.
Worm Gear. Circular, diametral and linear Pitches. Center .distance. Gashing angle.
Bevel Gears. Angles. Tooth parts. Diameters. Selecting cutters.
Spiral Gears. Calculating parts; angle, circumference, and lead. Use of milling machine tables. Finding normal Pitch. Depth. Figuring gears for the lead. Outside diameter. Selection of cutters.
Experience of the past two years has developed a standard for entrance higher than originally planned. The “Waiting List” kept in my office has usually about twenty-five names of applicants divided into “Favorable” and.” Held Over”. In the- first group are placed boys who have passed their fifteenth birthday who are at least five feet four inches in height, have good physique, and have completed one year in the High School. Now that a hard worker can qualify for entrance on full-time in two and a half years, the above requirements are essential that we may send out boys who are mature enough and physically able to stand’ the strain of working all their time in the factory, depending on ‘their own resources to “make good”.
From this “Favorable” list are chosen the boys who will seemingly profit most by the opportunity presented them by the’ school; priority of application is secondary to this consideration. The record of the applicant in the grade schools is looked up’ and given ‘careful consideration, but is not usually a predominant factor for acceptance. The spirit of the boy towards hard work is a very weighty factor. The “Held Over” list is consulted frequently and the progress; of the boys on this list is inquired into. As soon as possible the- names are transferred to the higher list.
COST OF THE SCHOOL COMPARED WITH EARNINGS FOR FIVE YEARS
On another page is a reproduction of a chart prepared to, give in graphic form the leading financial facts regarding the above points. Instead of our school year I have chosen for comparison the fiscal year of the State Board of Education, which ends on November 30. These figures, then, come down to December 1, 1914. It will be seen. that the total cost of the school for equipment and maintenance was $25,772.47. While no one could expect the students’ wages to pay the expenses, it is a gratifying fact for comparison that the total wages received by the part-time boys, for the same period were $22,560.76: The cost of maintenance paid by city and state was $23,929.75, but the important fact, for us locally is this: the total net cost to the city was $13,807.58. Compare this with the wages received and we find that for every dollar spent by the city the boys added one dollar sixty-three cents to the wealth o f the community.
Reduced to a per capita basis: for an expenditure by the City of an average of $48.99 for each boy in the school, the training given him has helped him earn $79.63.
DOES THE COMMUNITY PROFIT BY ITS INVESTMENT IN THE SCHOOL
I have made my answer to this question in the most conservative terms. In round numbers the total wages received by the graduates, full-time and part-time boys, last year was $40,000. It is not fair to claim all of this amount as due to the work of the school; these boys would presumably be at other remunerative work. Using as a fair basis of comparison a wage of $8.00 per week for an untrained boy of the same age as our graduates and full-time boys and $7.00 per week for boys of the same age as our part-time boys, a corresponding number of untrained workers would earn $29,000 per annum. The difference between these amounts, $11,000, represents the net return to the community on its investment in the education of these boys. The City spent last year $3,300 and for this investment added $11,000 to the wealth of the community, a gain of one hundred forty-two per cent.
In its five years’ support of the school the City has invested in equipment and maintenance $14,000. Last year, one year only of the five, our boys earned the equivalent of an annual interest of twenty-one per cent.
From the money standpoint alone the investment pays, but this takes no account of the added returns in the far greater and more lasting additions to intelligent and prosperous citizenship. An investment that has given its citizen-to-be three years’ valuable training in a trade that has no limit to its possibilities, that has more than doubled their earning capacity, that has helped them establish permanent homes, that has given them a “nest egg” in the bank — does anyone question whether it pays? Yet, the school is only in its early stages and better things are to come.
FULL-TIME BOYS AND GRADUATES
On July 28, 1913, eight boys were sent out into the factory on full time. This is the fifth group of boys thus promoted. When these boys have been thoroughly tested out on various types of work they will receive the Certificate of Graduation, an honor bestowed on twenty-eight of our boys since October 9, 1911.
A sterling testimony to the worth of the school is that shown by the increasing numbers of pupils whose fathers work in the factory. During my first year of service only five boys were sons of fathers who were employed in the factory, the second year saw twenty-two and last year the number had grown to thirty-five.
Outside of the factory trades, fifteen other occupations were represented by this year’s parents. Ten boys were the sons of widows.
Another significant fact is the steady increase of boys from the upper grades of the public schools; the large majority of applicants for admission comes from the High School. In my last report I urged the establishment of evening school work under our auspices. The need is now even more urgent and I would respectfully urge definite action upon this recommendation. It seems like weakness in our school plans that some of our graduates (four of them) should have to go to Boston for advanced instruction that could be given here and to a larger number. I believe the expenditure of effort and money would richly repay the community.
WILLIAM P. TAYLOR, Director.